Vol. 2, No.1

Постійний URI для цього зібранняhttps://repositary.knuba.edu.ua/handle/987654321/9589


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  • Документ
    On calculation of the pseudo-inverse econometric models matrix with a rank deficient observation matrix
    (KNUCA, 2019) Kutovyi, V.; Kutovyi, O.; Shutovskyi, O.
    The approach to estimating the parameters of linear econometric dependencies for the case of combining a number of special conditions arising in the modeling process is considered. These conditions concern the most important problems that arise in practice when implementing a number of classes of mathematical models, for the construction of which a matrix of explanatory variables is used. In most cases, the vectors that make up the matrix have a close correlation relationship. That leads to the need to perform calculations using a rank deficient matrix. There are also violations of the conditions of the Gauss-Markov theorem. For any non-degenerate square matrix X, an inverse matrix X-1 is uniquely defined such that, for random right-hand side B , the solution of the system X β = B is vector β X-1 b . If X is a degenerate or rectangular matrix, then there is no inverse to it. Moreover, in these cases, the system X β = B may be incompatible. Here it is natural to use a generalization of the concept of the inverse transformation, which is formulated in terms of the corresponding problem of minimizing the sum of squared residuals. In the same case, having a QR decomposition, one can use the formula X+ = R-1 Q1’. In addition, it is recommended for specific calculations. With an incomplete rank, the most convenient form of representation 1 X-1 follows from the expansion in characteristic numbers. If X = U ΣV with non-zero characteristic numbers, then X+ = VΣ+U’. We propose an alternative X+ calculation method, which relies on the decomposition of a rank deficient matrix into the product of two matrices of full rank.
  • Документ
    П’ята міжнародна науково-практична конференція «Transfer of Innovative Technologies 2019»
    (KNUCA, 2019) Сукач, М.
    У травні 2019 року проведено V міжнародну науково-практичну конференцію Transfer of Innovative Technologies, яка стала логічним продовженням форуму Underwater Technologies, що протягом чотирьох років поспіль проходив у Київському національному університеті будівництва і архітектури під гаслом «Вплив води на довкілля та інноваційні технології». Основну увагу прикуто інтеграції вітчизняних та закордонних фахівців в розробці теорії, проведенні досліджень, створенні нової техніки і технологій, застосуванні новітніх енергоощадних екологічно безпечних технологій. Розглядались оригінальні ідеї, пропозиції, нестандартні рішення, креативні проекти. Запропоновано інноваційні методи дослідження та прогнозування властивостей матеріалів, конструкцій, технологічних процесів, нові підходи щодо проектування, виробництва і експлуатації промислових, цивільних об’єктів, інфраструктури, проблеми енергетики, екології, комп’ютерні та інформаційні технології. Представлено оригінальні роботи й авторитетні огляди з інноваційних технологій у будівництві, архітектурі, інших галузях науки і техніки. Надійшло понад сотню заявок, у тому числі від науковців, виробників та фахівців з Польщі, Литви, Білорусі, Австралії, Китаю за тематичною спрямованістю: Архітектура, Інфраструктура, Будівництво, Інженерія, Інформаційні технології. Підбито підсумки конкурсної програми за номінаціями: Презентація, Інноваційний проект, Публікація. Кращі роботи рекомендовано до публікації в міжнародних наукових журналах Підводні технології: промислова та цивільна інженерія і Transfer of Innovative Technolo-gies. Досягнуто домовленості між КНУБА, Сілезьким технологічним університетом (Забже, Польща) та Університетом науки і технологій Цзянсу (Чженьянг, Китай) про спільне видання наукових журналів. Наголошено на важливості міжнародної співпраці у різних галузях і трансферу інноваційних технологій.
  • Документ
    Influence of urbanization on economic social scope: negative consequences
    (KNUCA, 2019) Borzenko, O.
    The architectural and construction environment has a very strong influence on the psyche of people living in it. It was noticed that the accumulation of multistory houses with evenly spaced windows of the windows helps to reduce the intelligence and increase the aggressiveness of those people who watch them daily. Similarly, the accumulation of a large number of cars that fill yards and streets is also perceived. For people that living in the city, frequent cases appearance depression. Largely it is connected with their way of life, lack of time, workload at work and home, all sorts of trouble, and you have a gradient rate accelerated rhythm life. Theoretical concepts and concepts of A. Marshall, A. Weber, E. Hoover, W. Aizard and updated by Nobel laureate in economics P. Krugman and his are key to understanding the nature and causes of population concentration and economic activity in major cities. From the point of view of these researchers, the attractive force of cities, including the largest ones, is associated in its most general form with the emergence and development of the phenomenon of agglomeration effects (agglomerative economy). In the modern theory of agglomeration effects caused by the spatial manifestation of the action of market forces and affecting the growth of cities, researchers identify two of their main types: localization effects and urbanization effects More than 50 percent of people around the world live in cities, and the World Health Organization predicts that this share will continue to grow. People migrate to cities, in particular, in Ukraine, for many reasons, including family ties and employment opportunities, political situation in a country or region and has several serious negative consequences. In order to improve the conditions of their lives, people strive to make them more comfortable, comfortable and favorable for themselves. However, this leads to the separation of man from the natural environment of his habitation and to the violation of natural ecosystems. It creates a kind of urban system, consisting of architectural and construction objects and much disturbed natural ecosystems. Thus, the levels of urbanization in Ukraine's regions will over time be aligned. The development of existing agglomerations and the formation of new ones, in particular in the coastal part of Ukraine, will continue.
  • Документ
    Transformation concept "Information technologies" in modern scientific discourse
    (KNUCA, 2019) Rubanets, O.
    The purpose of the study is to reveal the objective transformations that have occurred in information technology. Conceptualization of these transformations is also important. System, information, network and cognitive approaches allow to reveal the main aspects of the development of information technologies - technical and technological, software and hardware, network, communication, cognitive. The article considers the evolution of information technology. The relationship of information technology with its increasing role and importance of information in the life of man and society is analyzed. Information technologies are disclosed as technologies to create, store, record and process information. Technical and technological direction of information technology development is analyzed. The connection of the information technology concept transformation and development of the information society theory, in particular, the theory of post-industrial society, information society, network society, knowledge society and the digital world is revealed. The connection of the information technology concept transformation and the emergence of the media civilization and global information space is also revealed. The article shows that the development of information technology is an important factor in the development of the information society. Technology transition (the electronic computer as a machine) to the modern stage of development of digital technologies is characterized by the formation of a single technical and technological basis for the formation of the information society. The classification of information technology according to its application scope is proposed. Information and communication technologies characterize subject-to-subject interactions, among which pedagogical and political technologies are primarily distinguished. Information space is separate area of information technology application. Information processing technologies in the information space are the basis of modern democratic discourse. An important area of information technology is the information sphere. Information sphere is the sphere of information activity, information exchange and information relations, the regulator of which is the information law. Information security technologies ensure the protection of human rights, society and the state in obtaining objective information. Cybersecurity technologies protect critical infrastructure. The technologies of reality – virtual, cognitive, and augmented – provide the ability of a person’s consciousness and thinking to process and create new information. Identifying the social significance of the technical and technological development of information technologies becomes the basis of recommendations for the implementation of a strategies for the formation of the information society in Ukraine.
  • Документ
    Urban Planning Aspects of Ecological and Urban Planning Regulation Fundamentals for Main Street and Road Network Functioning and Forward Development
    (KNUCA, 2019) Priymachenko, O.
    The greatest influence of motor vehicles is manifested in the urbanized environment. The city is an indicator of sustainable development or an unfavourable relationship between motor vehicles and the urban environment. The study is based on an assessment of the impact of the vehicles current state on the street and road network and trunk road adjacent areas to substantiate the adopted planning protective measures and to determine the functional purpose of the trunk road adjacent areas proceeding from environmental impact on street and road networks. Anthropogenic air pollution sources are primarily represented by industrial enterprises and vehicles emissions. The main task in determining the assessment of the effectiveness of the protective solutions of trunk road adjacent areas is the correct choice of assessment criteria, according to which the efficiency of solutions will differ. Since the street and road network with all its traffic flows is an integral structural element of the city, its impact on the environmental performance of the urban environment can undoubtedly be called the prevailing one. It is necessary to highlight noise, airborne emissions and air (atmosphere) pollution among the main environmental impacts, the source of which is the functioning of the street and road network. Since the street and road system is the main tool in wastewater collection and disposal, it also has a direct impact on the ecological condition of hydrosphere objects, i.e. groundwater, springs, water bodies. Its environmental impacts on the urban setting's lithosphere are also evident: road surface contamination, lubricant residues and gasoline pollute the soil during the removal of rain and melt wastewater. It is impossible to rule out the harmful effects of electromagnetic loads from rail vehicle operation. According to the State Statistics Service of Ukraine, the quality of atmospheric air in a modern developed city is primarily dependent on the volume of pollutant emissions, the two main sources of pollution being stationary 15…30% and mobile 70…85% (using Kyiv's example).
  • Документ
    City Master Plan: Forecasting Methodology Problems (on the example of the Master Plans of Kyiv)
    (KNUCA, 2019) Pleshkanovska, A.
    The basic document for regulation of the settlement urban development is the Master Plan [1]. The legislative and regulatory framework for regulating the composition, content, approval and approval of this document is very extensive and is based on a broad basis of scientific research and practical experience of domestic and foreign specialists in this field. The larger the city, the more difficult it is to predict its continued existence. In this article the results of the analysis of historical-geographical, socio-demographic and legislative-normative aspects influencing the regulation of the city development issues (on the example of the historical and current master plans of the city of Kyiv) are covered. Also are outlined the peculiarities of the formation of the spatial organization of the city territory as a part of the master plans of Kyiv at different historical stages – prior the planning, the period of joining the Russian Empire, the Soviet and the present period. The evolution of models of spatial organization of the city territory is characterized. The master plans development periodicity is analyzed as well as a conclusion is made about the fallibility of the statutory requirement regarding the indefinite validity of the master plan of the settlement as a basic urban planning document. Population size (both actual and predicted) acts as a key indicator of settlement development. The article analyzes the dynamics of the population of Kyiv, identifies patterns of influence of positive and negative factors on this indicator, establishes faults between the actual and predicted population of Kyiv. The conclusion is made about the extreme complexity of forecasting the prospects for the development of urban systems. The reasons (accuracy of demographic forecasts, counter intuitive-ness of development of complex urban planning system, imperfection of legislative and regulatory base) of impossibility of full realization of master plans of settlements, in particular, of the city of Kyiv are considered. The recommendations on improvement of the legislative and normative base for development of settlements master plans are given. In particular, the return of the fixed term of the Master Plan, that does not exceed 20 years. The author's vision of promising directions of development and transformation of the spatial organization of the territory at the present evolutionary stage of its existence of the city of Kyiv is formulated. Namely – a cardinal complex reconstruction of the city.
  • Документ
    Application of modular system for innovation buildings architectural design
    (KNUCA, 2019) Kazemi, L.
    This article deals with the modular regulation techniques in the design of innovative enterprises in order to improve operational efficiency, as well as creating a more rational method of expansion and transformation. Consequently, the advantages of modular architecture in reducing the cost, labor and costs of building materials are compared with traditional methods. In addition, the contribution of further expansion of buildings by modular architecture is described. Based on scientific research, two classes of a modular system are defined for regulating the architectural structure of existing and new objects of an innovative enterprise: combined and specialized. Such systems are realized in the form of a grid, cellular structure and prefabricated units, which allow combining homogeneous and heterogeneous functional zones. At the same time, more acceptable module dimensions are determined for the main types of spaces in innovative enterprises: office, laboratory and production. The use of one or another type of modular solution, which adapts to the requirements of the terrain and the functional process of innovative buildings for various purposes, is recommended. Modular unit techniques for the construction of temporary, permanent and mobile buildings of innovative enterprises are also presented in this article. Prefabricated modules, which include flat materials and spatial blocks, are considered. Metal, wood, plastic and reinforced concrete wrapped and blocks for creating modular systems are the subjects of study in this article. Also, some companies that have developed typical modular buildings from similar building materials are named. The methods of connecting and assembling elements from the modules both at the plant and at the construction site are analyzed. It also explains the relationship between the dimensions of modular structures and vehicles. Examples from world experience are given for each of these types.
  • Документ
    Territory planning and tourism development in the coastal zone of Ukraine
    (KNUCA, 2019) Panchenko, T.
    The Black Sea Region of Ukraine with the length of 2,8 thousand km can be identified as one of the most long-range regions in regard to the sustainable tourism development. The potential opportunities of the possible tourism development and improvement can be caused by the following main factors: incomplete level of the development of tourism resources; attractiveness for the population of such regions as East Europe, North and Central Asia that have transport connection and traditionally use the Black Sea coast for summer rest without language barrier; enlargement of the tourism field for the tourists from the countries of Central and West Europe; developing of the quality of the tourism service as a result of the realization of the privatization of the tourist complexes; improvement of the environmental safely level that is already observed and can be continued as a result of the implementation of the environmental measures; development of the transport system, improvement of the access and visa regime; difference between the costs for tourist services. The Law of Ukraine "On Tourism", established the legislative preconditions for tourism transformation. Also provided the essential change of the governmental scheme in the field of tourism with the aim so approach its formation to the one of the one of the priorities in the branch of economics. At the same time the real problems and constraints exist which restrain the sustainable tourism development in the Ukrainian, part of the coastal zone. There is a necessity for the development of some parts of the tourism services which are the obligatory components of the market economy system and which formerly were not developed or were solved without taking into account economic measures. They are: the establishment of the marketing system for the provisions of the tourism activities, including the establishment of the sale system, advertisement, arrangement of the services structure in accordance to the requirements, certification of the tourist complexes in regard to the world service level; development of the tourist infrastructure, provision of the necessary, information about the quality of environment and value of recreated resources. There is a need to conduct the environmental sanitation of the tourist complexes on the base of their privatization.