To the problem of risk management in the field of the atomic industry of Ukraine





Drozd, Ivan

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The historical retrospective and modern state of the nuclear industry of Ukraine, including the extractive and power generating industries, are analyzed. At this stage, the most important problems are: to define future prospects for the development of the nuclear industry; extension of the term of over-project exploitation of nuclear power units; further decommission the NPP; managing the spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. The peculiarities of introducing a risk-oriented approach at the nuclear industry and energy facilities are discussed: risk assessment and their management. It is recommended to raise the level of security culture in all branches of the Ukrainian nuclear industry and to recognize the unconditional priority of security over other issues, including those of economic and business nature. After the collapse of the Soviet Union there were four operating nuclear power plants in Ukraine, as well as the Chernobyl nuclear power plant with its numerous problems. In addition, a number of uranium industry enterprises on the territory of Ukraine and nuclear industry management system and its regulation, requiring significant structural and personnel reform were remained. Despite the economic downturn and political instability in Ukraine, it was succeeded to keep the nuclear energy potential, which is very significant issue in the presence of problems in the fuel and energy complex. Considering Russia's military aggression against Ukraine the need to replace Russian nuclear fuel reactors with nuclear fuel modifications from other suppliers has been a rose. The replacement will take several years, so to ensure safety during the transition to fuel of a new design will be the main task for nuclear power plants in Ukraine. At present, about 6000 tons of spent nuclear fuel have been accumulated in Ukraine. Part of the fuel is still being exported to Russia with the purpose of storage and further processing, which in the future has no prospect considering mentioned military aggression. A large amount of radioactive waste is accumulated in Ukraine. The system of their managing requires an improvement. In particular, the question of the choice of the site for their deep geological disposal is not yet resolved. Today, Ukraine independently implement sonly the first stage of the nuclear fuel cycle – extraction of uranium ore and the production of uranium concentrate from it, while providing only about 40% of the needs of Ukrainian NPPs. The main tasks of risk management in the nuclear industry of Ukraine are as follows: - adoption of a risk-oriented approach as the basic principle of security; - improvement of the legislative and methodological base; - training operation and inspection specialists for atomic industry objects; - harmonization of the basic principles of a risk-oriented approach with international regulations. It is expedient to evaluate and analyze the risks at all nuclear and nuclear energy facilities in Ukraine and, based on this analysis, to develop a perspective vision of industry development.


Ключові слова

nuclear industry, NPP, risk, risk management, safety culture

Бібліографічний опис

Drozd Ivan P. To the problem of risk management in the field of the atomic industry of Ukraine / I. Drozd // Екологічна безпека та природокористування = Environmental safety and natural resources : зб. наук. праць / Київ. нац. ун-т буд-ва і архіт., Ін-т телекомунікацій і глобал. інформ. простору ; гол. ред. : О. С. Волошкіна, О. М. Трофимчук – Київ, 2018. – Вип. 3 (27). – С. 79 – 91. – Бібліогр. : 14 назв.