Вип. 27(3)

Постійний URI для цього зібранняhttps://repositary.knuba.edu.ua/handle/987654321/141


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  • Документ
    The factors and possible consequences of regional changes in engineering and geotechnical status of loesses and loessy-loamy soils of Ukraine
    (ІТГІП, 2018) Yakovlev, Yevheniy O.; Rogozin, Olexij G.
    Over the recent decades in Ukraine regional activation of flooding of lands, accompanied by landslide formation and subsidence of surfaces take place. It is caused by interaction of a complex of natural and technogenic factors (global climate changes, groundwater afflux in areas of impact of reservoirs, flooding of numerous mines and quarries, etc.). On the territories of the most widespread in Ukraine loessy and loessy-loamy soils these phenomena become the most dangerous transformations of engineering and geotechnical state of the upper part of the geological environment. The researches carried out at the ITGIS have clarified that the specific engineering and geological properties of loessy soils (soaking, subsidence and thixotropy) are the main factors contributing to progressive reduction of engineering seismogeological stability of these soils. The cause of thixotropic dilution is the operation of various vibration mechanisms or closeness of the objects causing vibration (railways, etc.). Thixotropic dilution is mostly caused by vibrational destruction of non-waterproof aggregate structure of loessy soil. Destruction is also accompanied by vibrational movement of products of destruction into the pore space. After termination of vibration the aggregate structure is partially restored due to the formation of secondary aggregates. Today more than 50% of 460 cities and 885 urban-type settlements in Ukraine are located in the zone of subsiding loessy and loessy-loamy soils, up to 15% are affected by natural and technogenic karst formation, and in 9% (123) of the cases development of landslides was recorded. Natural and technogenic flooding of the territory was recorded in more than 40% (546) of cities and towns. Therefore, there are complex changes in the geotechnical conditions in majority of the industrial urban agglomerations of Ukraine and deterioration of ecological and geological parameters of life within them. The zoning by the regional geotechnical risk of flooding of cities and villages of Ukraine situated on loessy and loessy-loamy soils should be carried out on the basis of the combined effect of natural and technogenic factors. It is recommended to apply the additive model of influence on geotechnical risk. The mentioned risk is proposed to be quantified by indicators of the specific density of areas of flood and landslide development in both technogenic and natural conditions. The property of water-saturated loessy soils to move to the quicksand state is mostly due to the structural features of these soils and to the laws of their transition to the rarefied state. The process of obtaining by loesses (in circumstances of long-term flooding) of fluid-thixotropic properties develops in the Southern region on irrigated lands and begins to spread to the other regions. It is necessary to continue scientific and production works to improve the methodological basis of an assessment of the impact of modern changes in levels and chemical composition of groundwater, negative technogenic effects on the subsoil, global climate change and other factors on formation of the geotechnical risk using modern technologies of GIS and Earth remote sensing, as well as to complement this basis with ecologic, economic and insurance assessments of the risk of life safety.
  • Документ
    The eia gap analysis for the project of dredging works at the Southern Bug river
    (ІТГІП, 2018) Radomska, Margarita M.; Ryabchevsky, Oleg V.; Vologzhanina, VeronikaV.; Kovalska, Viktoriia V.
    The transformation of the Southern Bug river ecosystem for the revival of navigation activity has been considered in the paper from the point of indirect impacts on the environment. The method of gap analysis widely used in various branches of science has been applied to determine the omitted issues of the dredging works at the river basin. The analysis has showed that despite a range of important benefits, including promotion of agricultural and constructional materials production development, reduction of on-land cargo traffic and growing incomes to the local budget, the implementation of the project will cause additional negative effects, not considered in the official process of environmental impacts assessment. The most important problems, requiring further attention and mitigation, are intensification of erosive processes, changes of air and water quality, transformation of river biocenosis and climate of the area, as well as management of extracted bottom sediments.
  • Документ
    Small sewage wastewater treatment plants for domestic wastewater
    (ІТГІП, 2018) Kyriienko, Petro G.; Betin, Oleksandr V.; Kuznetsova, Natalia V.
    Small sewage wastewater treatment plants are used for treatment of domestic wastewater from individual residential houses, small schools, roadside cafes, restaurants, small railway stations, camping sites, etc., where there is no centralized sewage network. In cases when there is a limited space for the installation of small-scale treatment facilities, authors suggest using of septic tanks and drainage wells. Sewage effluents are collected with gravity force, without using electricity. Usage of proposed constructions does not cause pollution of soils and underground water horizons. Sanitary environment is stable and predictable.
  • Документ
    Organization of municipal solid waste sorting: local aspect
    (ІТГІП, 2018) Koval, Iryna I.; Pohrebennyk, Volodymyr D.
    The approach to organization of municipal solid waste sorting is developed. It is proposed to introduce a logistics system for the management and handling of solid waste at the local level. The system provides a sequence of logistics operations for planning and organization of waste management.
  • Документ
    Оntology based systemazing of the science information devoted to waste utilizing by methanogenesys
    (ІТГІП, 2018) Shapovalov, Yevheniy B.; Shapovalov, Viktor B.; Stryzhak, Oleksandr Ye.; Salyuk, Anatoliy I.
    Quantity of the scientific materials in the field of biogas production is growing. Thus, it is actual to provide informational management of it. Previously text documents and not-interactive pictures were used to describe it. The approach to systematization of scientific information on the production of biogas based on the ontological IT platform of TODOS is developed. It is proposed to separate the semantic characteristics of each work for their further introduction it into the IT platform of the TODOS. To construct a system of ranking of previous studies, we have identified the semantic characteristics of scientific research devoted to the production of biogas from chicken manure. Temperature (°C), volume of reactor (l), chicken manure content (%), moisture content (%), active sludge content (%), final solids content (%), biogas production and methane (ml/g TS), methane content (%), year of the research, ammonium nitrogen content (mg/l), VFA (mg/l), pH is final, initial pH, minimum pH, maximum pH were used to create ontology management system of the previous researches devoted to biogas production. The characteristics of the microorganisms were used to create the ontology based system of the microorganism selection. Google sheets was used to create base of knowledge and previous researches. An ontological graph with a ranking function for previous scientific research and a system of selection of microorganisms has been developed. Thus, the proposed systems allow to systematize previous research and theoretical information devoted to help of ontological graphs and provide information management in this field. Developed approaches allow us to analyze the results of previous research and theoretical information which provides systemizing of information and information management in general.
  • Документ
    Estimation and forecast of changes in the hydrochemical status of the Tisza river
    (ІТГІП, 2018) Vasilenko, Lesya O.; Zhukova, Olena G.; Kokitko, Angelina A.
    The engineer-ecological indexes and their parameters are used at the ecological estimation of the status of hydroecosystems (HE) of the Tisza water basin. The system-basin approach of research of the water basin bazed on the systematization and processing of environmental monitoring data for the long-term period was used. Such period allowed to set scientific conformities of the development of naturally-anthropogenic hydroecosystems in the conditions of constant technogenic load on them.
  • Документ
    French green building rating systems
    (ІТГІП, 2018) Kryvomaz, Тetyana I.; Michaud, Alain; Varavin, Dmytro V.; Perebynos, Alona R.
    Most of the Green Building Rating Systems have similarities in common more than differences. All of these systems are trying to integrate issues of environmental protection and health in the building. French Haute Qualité Environnementale (HQE) system identifies 14 environmental targets for building divided into four groups of objectives: site and construction, management, health, comfort. These targets have implications for all steps of the design process and production of the building and also taking into account the land, the landscape, the neighborhood and the transportation systems. The green building construction is a global issue that can find regional solutions. French system is suitable for Ukraine mentality, because for current situation we need new technologies and modern knowledge to developing green building sector. HQE has better innovative extension of the concept to the urban planning operations in compare with other world’s leading standards for Green Buildings assessment systems.
  • Документ
    Calculation of the systematic vertical drainage under protection of the irrigated lands and built-up territories from the ground waters submergence
    (ІТГІП, 2018) Telyma, Sergii V.
    The methodic of the solution of the problem of the transient flow in multilayer heterogeneous in cross section aquifer at modeling of the vertical drainage work with different boundary conditions on the contour of the drainage well is proposed. The numerical aspects of the solution of the given problem and the example of solution the methodic task for scheme of the three-layer aquifer at the constant drawdown of the ground and underground waters on the well contour are considered.
  • Документ
    To the problem of risk management in the field of the atomic industry of Ukraine
    (КНУБА : ІТГІП, 2018) Drozd, Ivan
    The historical retrospective and modern state of the nuclear industry of Ukraine, including the extractive and power generating industries, are analyzed. At this stage, the most important problems are: to define future prospects for the development of the nuclear industry; extension of the term of over-project exploitation of nuclear power units; further decommission the NPP; managing the spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. The peculiarities of introducing a risk-oriented approach at the nuclear industry and energy facilities are discussed: risk assessment and their management. It is recommended to raise the level of security culture in all branches of the Ukrainian nuclear industry and to recognize the unconditional priority of security over other issues, including those of economic and business nature. After the collapse of the Soviet Union there were four operating nuclear power plants in Ukraine, as well as the Chernobyl nuclear power plant with its numerous problems. In addition, a number of uranium industry enterprises on the territory of Ukraine and nuclear industry management system and its regulation, requiring significant structural and personnel reform were remained. Despite the economic downturn and political instability in Ukraine, it was succeeded to keep the nuclear energy potential, which is very significant issue in the presence of problems in the fuel and energy complex. Considering Russia's military aggression against Ukraine the need to replace Russian nuclear fuel reactors with nuclear fuel modifications from other suppliers has been a rose. The replacement will take several years, so to ensure safety during the transition to fuel of a new design will be the main task for nuclear power plants in Ukraine. At present, about 6000 tons of spent nuclear fuel have been accumulated in Ukraine. Part of the fuel is still being exported to Russia with the purpose of storage and further processing, which in the future has no prospect considering mentioned military aggression. A large amount of radioactive waste is accumulated in Ukraine. The system of their managing requires an improvement. In particular, the question of the choice of the site for their deep geological disposal is not yet resolved. Today, Ukraine independently implement sonly the first stage of the nuclear fuel cycle – extraction of uranium ore and the production of uranium concentrate from it, while providing only about 40% of the needs of Ukrainian NPPs. The main tasks of risk management in the nuclear industry of Ukraine are as follows: - adoption of a risk-oriented approach as the basic principle of security; - improvement of the legislative and methodological base; - training operation and inspection specialists for atomic industry objects; - harmonization of the basic principles of a risk-oriented approach with international regulations. It is expedient to evaluate and analyze the risks at all nuclear and nuclear energy facilities in Ukraine and, based on this analysis, to develop a perspective vision of industry development.