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- ДокументТехнологічні та експлуатаційні особливості реакторів ар-1000 покоління iii+ та малих модульних реакторів мр-160(Юстон, 2021-12-22) Ващенко В. М.; Кордуба І. Б.; Жукова О. Г.Технологічний та екологічний аналіз головних характеристик технологічної, експлуатаційної і екологічної безпеки в контексті прогресивних досягнень на головних напрямках розробки реакторних установок типу ВВЭР, МР-160 та АР-1000 для енергоблоків, що на сьогодні знаходяться на етапах розробки, проектування та будівництва, є одним із найактуальніших питань розвитку світової ядерної енергетики. Така актуальність, зокрема, зумовлена тим, що на базі даних технологій планується подальший розвиток ядерної енергетики України. Задачі забезпечення експлуатаційної та радіоекологічної безпеки для енергетичних реакторів нових поколінь зводяться до отримання максимально низької розрахункової ймовірності подій, пов'язаних з можливою аварією, а також максимально низької ймовірності радіаційних наслідків з дотриманням усіх вимог національних та міжнародних нормативних та рекомендаційних документів, які приймаються конкретною державою та її громадянським суспільством.
- ДокументОrganizational support of state management of water resources according to the basin principle(ДКС-центр, 2022-12-06) Zhukova, О.; Berezniy, МWater resources are an integral part of nature management, which in terms of market relations is considered a commodity. Uneven territorial distribution of water resources and significant anthropogenic pressure lead to acute water shortages. At present, Ukraine's water management has a significant number of problems, including: deepening the trend of irrational water use; unsatisfactory water quality in natural water bodies; significant increase in material damage from the negative impact due to floods, flooding of groundwater, waterlogging, secondary salinization of land, water erosion, reduced investment in water management. The realities of water use, especially in the field of water resources management, have led to the need to improve existing scientific approaches that will allow more efficient allocation of resources and will be based on the principles of sustainable development. For a long time there was a notion of unlimited water resources and, accordingly, of free access to them. However, with the development of the country's productive forces and especially water-intensive enterprises, pollution of water sources, disputes between water users over the use of water resources, and, finally, water scarcity in some large river basins, society's costs of increasing water resources and bringing them to quality standards have risen sharply. It has become clear that water is a limited and rather expensive resource for society. The main essence, features and main advantages of the basin principle of water resources management are considered in the work; the functions, types and features of the water resources management system based on the basin principle were studied and researched, the structure was analyzed, the main problems of implementation were identified and measures for the effective operation of the water resources management system were proposed. It is noted that the development of the basin system of water resources management in Ukraine should be carried out with maximum use and significant expansion of the functions provided by the water sector of the State Water Management. This approach makes it possible to predict the consequences of human activities, for early prevention of environmental and man-made disasters.
- ДокументDevelopment of models of the electromagnetic environment in buildings and urbanized areas(Технологічний центр, 2022-12-30) Levchenko, Larysa; Ausheva, Nataliia; Burdeina, Nataliia; Aznaurian, Iryna; Biruk, Yana; Kasatkina, Nataliia; Matvieieva, Iryna; Nazarenko, Vasyl; Nikolaiev, Kyrylo; Tykhenko, OksanaA set of measures and means to control the electromagnetic situation of the environment in the territories of urban development, in buildings and individual premises has been substantiated and developed. The simulation tools show the ability to rationalize the parameters of overhead lines with voltages of 220 kV and below, which will reduce the electromagnetic load in the territories. Modeling the propagation of fields from underground high-voltage lines has established that the values of magnetic fields compared to overhead lines are lower up to 30 times. Models of propagation of electromagnetic fields of very high and ultrahigh frequency were built. Sources of electromagnetic fields of non-production origin in industrial buildings have been investigated. Uncompensated currents in power networks with nonlinear electric consumers generate magnetic fields by induction of 0.35–1.20 μT, which exceeds the maximum permissible levels of operation of computer equipment. Leakage currents on grounded metal structures generate magnetic fields with 1.52–6.75 μT. Simulation of the propagation of electric and magnetic fields of components of personal computers of controlled ranges according to the MPRII standard was carried out. Models of propagation of the magnetic field of industrial frequency around electric motors and generators with their cross sections were built. On the basis of such models, design schemes for placing equipment in production areas are selected or places of safe stay and movement of personnel are selected. The expediency of using shielding to reduce field levels to safe values due to coating surfaces with liquid protective mixtures was shown. Metal-containing composition based on water-dispersion paint makes it possible to reduce the level= of magnetic field of industrial frequency by 2.5–2.6 times, electric field by 1.6–1.7 times, electromagnetic field of industrial frequency – by 1.2–1.3 times.
- ДокументTheoretical calculation of the activity coefficients of dilute aqueous solutions taking into account factors of electrical nature(2022) Kravchenko, M.; Bereznytska, Y.; Vasylenko, L.; Fedorenko, S.The work is devoted to development of the diluted water solutions activity coefficient calculation methodology, using the equalization of the self-agreed systems continuum electrodynamics and allocating processes which are characteristic for the electric system. The dependence of calculated ion activity factors on concentration of diluted water solutions, which are divided into three groups, was obtained. It is justified that for single- and two-valent electrolytes of the first group the influence of the general mechanism of interaction between ions is characteristic, which is determined by the action of ion electric gravity and it`s features. The growth of activity in the area of large concentration values for electrolytes containing hydrogen ion and lithium ion is shown. It has been found that the activity values in the area of electrolytes large concentrations increase is connected with the manifestation of forces of pushing electrical origin in processes, which are accompanied by redistribution of charges. On the basis of equalization for the dielectric component properties of electrolytes water solutions are described. The dependence for calculation of electric field potential, field strength and charge density were obtained. Given the change of diluted water solution internal energy for "i" class ions and free energy is obtained the expression for chemical potential ions. The calculation of the diluted water solutions activity average coefficient is proposed taking into account the nature of electric factors.
- ДокументEnvironmental management as a component of Ukraine’s modern economy: Management under the conditions of martial law(Construction of Optimized Energy Potential (CoOEP), 2022) Fedorenko, Stanislav; Vasylenko, Lesya; Bereznytska, Yuliia; Kravchenko, MarynaThe development of environmental management in Ukraine is determined by the urgent need to overcome environmental problems and ensure the environmental safety of society, especially under the conditions of martial law. Today, the domestic economy is three times more resource-intensive than the world economy, the technological base and infrastructure complex of public production are rapidly wearing out, which leads to a decrease in the level of technological and environmental safety. Environmental management is related to the national economy and forms information about the need to use natural resources when promoting effective development. A comprehensive project-targeted approach to the develop ment of new forms of ownership and market economy reflects the interrelationship of all parts of the nature management project. The development of the scientific foundations of nature management is facilitated by the formulation of a general plan for the placement of productive forces. The ecological situation in Ukraine has long been called a crisis. In recent decades, new scientific directions have appeared, the result of which have been new ideas about human, society and nature and their coexistence. One of these directions is environmental management, which today is the ideology of production activity manage ment, as it provides an effective toolkit for solving current problems and preventing the emergence of new production environmental and economic issues.