Вип. 25(1)

Постійний URI для цього зібранняhttps://repositary.knuba.edu.ua/handle/987654321/139


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  • Документ
    Mathematical model of extensive green roof with a steep type of phytocenosis
    (ІТГІП, 2018) Tkachenko, Tetyana
    A mathematical model of the influence of weather conditions on the development of plants of a green roof with steppe type of phytocenosis for the eastern region of Ukraine with a sharply continental type of climate was developed. The main factors are the average annual relative humidity, temperature, percentage of sunny days and wind speed. By the method of least squares three equations are obtained for three groups of plants having the same phenotype. The analysis of the equations shows that the coefficients under various factors are comparable, which shows the same importance of taking into account all the factors. The smallest coefficients for all factors correspond to the group of plants II. These plants are the most resistant to weather influences. Plants of group III are characterized by insignificantly higher values of coefficients – within 0 ... 18.2%. Thus, plants of group III have approximately the same resistance to weather conditions. Plants of group I are characterized by values of coefficients that are 1.8 ... 2.1 times greater than group II, and the value of the free member is 4% less than group II. Thus, the first group is most prone to weather conditions and, with an average value of ambient air properties, has a lower score. These plants are more likely to lose their decorative qualities and require more frequent replacement or planting. The sensitivity of the plants to the action of the wind is established. This factor can have a negative impact on the decorative properties of plants. The action of wind is proposed to be adjusted using a parapet. When perforated parapet in the summer, the effect of the wind increases, which reduces decorative, but increases the «cooling effect». With a blind parapet, the effect of the wind decreases, the decorative nature of the plants increases, but the "cooling effect" decreases. This fact must be taken into account when using the green roof.
  • Документ
    Fundamental ecology in the context change of scientific paradigm
    (ІТГІП, 2018) Simonov, Igor; Trofimovich, Volodimir
    The article is devoted to the search for criteria for the definition of ecology as a fundamental science on the example of the emergence of scientific paradigms: quantum mechanics, nonequilibrium thermodynamics and synergetics. The features of the field device of matter on the basis of the continual electromagnetic field are analyzed. This opens up new perspectives for fundamental ecology in carrying out studies of the real interaction between the components of nature. The continual electromagnetic field of the aquatic environment is considered as the determining condition for the formation of the living matter. The conclusion that the water environment and the gravitational field is a universal system-forming space necessary for the emergence of the life process is substantiated.
  • Документ
    Іdentification of defects of the piles with reflected waves
    (ІТГІП, 2018) Lebid, Oleksij; Kaliukh, Iurii; Berchun, Yaroslav; Chernyshev, Dmytro
    Using current mathematical models of wave processes does not allow diagnosing defects in piles with sufficient accuracy. The necessity of creating of a pile generalized dynamic model which would allow to receive more reliable signals of wave processes in reinforced concrete piles has been substantiated. For numerical simulation of dynamic processes, a flat scheme for an axisymmetric pile based on the finite element method of "deep beam" within LIRA software complex was used. Sand was chosen as the soil around the pile due to the fact that sand and concrete characteristic impedance is very different, which provides a good echo from the pile toe (from the interface of the media). A comparative analysis of the results of mathematical modeling has made it possible to state that the most informative (in terms of differences in the comparison of graphs from one another), both for time signals and amplitude spectra, is the application of a horizontal impact on the lateral surface near the border with the pile base and the signal recording that comes to the speed sensors located in the vertical direction on the pile head near the border with the lateral surface. This option will be thoroughly tested numerically and experimentally in subsequent authors' studies.
  • Документ
    Evaluation of the influence of climatic and geomorphological factors on landslides development
    (ІТГІП, 2018) Kovrov, Oleksandr; Kolesnik, Valerij; Buchavyi, Yurii
    The paper deals with the study of factors influencing the propagation of landslides in Ukraine. According to numerous monitoring studies, climate changes have significant impact on the stability of natural slopes and cause landslide processes. The topicality of the study is connected with the multifactor mechanism of landslides formation and complexity of this process development in space and time scales. Activation of landslides is registered on the territory of almost all administrative regions of Ukraine. The increasing dependence of the number of recorded landslides on annual precipitation and relief is established. For the most landslide-prone regions of Ukraine, the integral coefficients of the relief influence have been calculated, and the levels of potential landslide risk have been determined. Linear regression dependence between the amount of atmospheric precipitation and the number of landslides has been obtained, which allows predict landslide hazard in the regions of Ukraine. The results of the calculations are presented graphically in the form of a map.
  • Документ
    Assessment and forecast for the creation of photochemical smog over transport overpasses in Kyiv
    (ІТГІП, 2018) Sipakov, Rostislav; Trofimovich, Volodimir; Voloshkina, Olena; Bereznitska, Julia
    This article deals with the analysis of existing models of smog situation formation over automobile overpasses and in places of substantial congestion of transport in large cities, for example, in Kyiv. A mathematical model consisting of two blocks – dynamic and kinetic, which allows determining the formation of the thermal dome of pollution and the concentration of hydrocarbon emissions in the air, depending on the number of working engines, is proposed. The kinetic block of the model allows determining the level of formaldehyde, as an indicator of the appearance of photochemical smog in conditions of atmospheric constancy. The concentration of emissions from motor vehicles in the air is calculated over the main transport overpasses of the city of Kyiv at their full load (peak hours).
  • Документ
    On peculiarities of hydropower development in the world and in Ukraine
    (ІТГІП, 2018) Stefanyshyn, Dmytro
    There have been presented results of a comparative analysis of features of hydropower development in the world and in Ukraine. The analysis was carried out on a basis of data concerning cost-efficient hydropower potential in different countries of the world, installed capacity of hydrogeneration facilities, generation of electricity by them, reservoirs surface area and hydrostatic pressure of hydropower plants (HPPs). As analogues of domestic HPPs for more detailed comparison some HPPs of France, Austria and Finland were considered. There were offered indicators that enable to estimate socio-economic attractiveness of HPPs and their impact on the environment. The results show a difference between the indicators of Ukrainian HPPs and foreign HPPs’ ones, and this difference is not in favour of domestic objects.
  • Документ
    Research of the use of «ecological niche» model for definition of production risk indicators
    (ІТГІП, 2018) Gunchenko, Oksana; Voloshkina, Olena
    The issues of improving the methodology for determining the risk of labor activity using the model of «ecological niche» are considered in the presence of a number of harmful and dangerous factors for human beings in the production environment. The possibility of using an ecological niche for mathematical modeling and industrial risk indicators has been established, but it has been proved that it is necessary to consider that the response to one factor may depend on the influence of another of the existing harmful and dangerous production factors. This approach allows us to develop a multi-criteria mathematical model for determining the production risk, but it is necessary to take into account the changes in the parameters of the MHF, which complicates the problem, since the effects of the exceedances in the same percent are different for all harmful and dangerous production factors.
  • Документ
    Computational dynamics of municipal wastes generation in Zhytomyr city
    (КНУБА : ІТГІП, 2018) Kotsіuba, Iryna; Lyko, Sergii; Lukianova, Vitalina; Anpilova, Yevheniia
    The paper analyzed the practical experience of management of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Ukraine and developed countries of the world is studied. The theoretical volume of solid waste accumulation taking into account statistical factors was analyzed. The proposed method of accumulation of MSW allows predicting its formation from factors and evaluated the morphological composition of MSW. The dependence of the accumulation of solid household wastes on the influence of the main social, environmental and economic factors, which would provide an opportunity to predict their dynamics as the basis of effective management decisions in the field of regional ecological security, has revealed. Provision was made to forecast the volumes of MSW formation in the city.
  • Документ
    A new method of control of coherent structures in vortex apparatuses
    (КНУБА : ІТГІП, 2018) Turick, Vladimir; Kochin, Viktor; Kochina, Mariia
    A new method for direct control of energy-intensive coherent vortex structures (ECVS) in a vortex chamber is provided with stable vortex wires, which are descended from the lateral edges of a small elongated wing which is mounted in the inlet nozzle of the chamber. The main task is to determine the reaction of the ECVS in the dead-end ("passive") and the flow ("active") parts of the chamber to the control actions of the nozzle exciter is solved. The efficiency of the principle of mutual susceptibility of vortex structures on the processes of controlling coherent structures for bounded flows in the fields of centrifugal forces is experimentally proved. The observed phenomenon of "pumping" energy of pulsations from small vortices to larger ones allows it to be used to control aerodynamic and hydrodynamic processes of mixing and thermal processes in vortex process and energy devices.